Tag Archives: Steam Navigation Wharf

Postcards from the Sky: Aerial images of the Charlottetown Waterfront 1930- 2000

Before the invention of the airplane residents of Charlottetown would have had little idea of what their city looked like from the skies. In 1878 they got a hint of the City’s appearance with the publication of a panoramic view of the city1. The Semi-Weekly Patriot noted its publication ” We do not know how the artist got there but the sketch seems to have been taken from an elevated position over the the head of the Railway Wharf. You have a view of part of the harbor and all of the wharves.” More on this view will be the subject of an upcoming blog posting.

Real aerial images were taken of the city in the late 1920s by the Royal Canadian Air Force but these would not have been freely available to the general public. Instead they had to wait for images of the city to be published as postcards. Over the years from the late 1930s to the present a number of air photos of the city were made available. Unfortunately the quality of postcard images had deteriorated considerably from the cards of the golden age of postcards in the years before the beginning of the Great Depression. Nevertheless these cards are one of the better sources to document the changing nature of the Charlottetown waterfront over the last eighty years.

Click on any highlighted text to see pages dedicated to the history of the wharf or company.

Charlottetown. P.E. Island. Photo Gelantine Engraving Company, Ottawa [PECO] card #12

This appears to be the earliest air photo of the Charlottetown waterfront to appear on a postcard. It shows a city not much changed since the years immediately following the publication of Meacham’s Atlas in 1880.2 While the names attached to several of the wharves changed over the years their basic configuration did not.

Charlottetown Waterfront, P.E. Island. Photo Gelantine Engraving Company, Ottawa [PECO] card No. 21

This detailed view was obviously taken at the same time as the more distant card above and can be dated before 1938. It shows an industrial waterfront in the closing days of the the age of sail. The Charlottetown Yacht Club clubhouse at Lords Wharf has not yet made its appearance although a number of small boats can be seen moored to the sheltered east side of Pownal Wharf. Indeed small craft can be seen at almost all of the wharves. The lot at the head of Pownal Wharf appears to be cleared for erection of the Eastern Hay and Feed Warehouse which was opened in 1940 and the rail spur which was extended along Lower Water Street does not appear to have been built. Judging by the number of warehouses Pownal Wharf seems to be in active use although no large ships can be seen there. Pickard’s Coal Wharf to the east is busier with at least three schooners tied to the wharf. Next is Queen’s Wharf , one of the smallest in the city but it has a vessel tied to each face of the wharf. At the Buntain and Bell Wharf with its distinctive warehouse a large schooner is either arriving or departing. The Marine and Fisheries wharf is quiet with all of the vessels stationed there on patrol although several smaller craft can be seen hauled out on the marine railway between that wharf and Buntain and Bell. The MacDonald Rowe woodworking plant can be seen just to the west of the end of Great George Street. In contrast with the neat and tidy arrangements on the Marine and Fisheries Wharf the Steam Navigation Wharf is a jumble of warehouses and out buildings (more than a dozen), most of which were associated with Bruce Stewart and Company’s industrial operations. Although the regular steamer service provided by the Harland had come to an end this was one of the busier wharves in the city. Between it and the Ferry Wharf at Prince Street another coal yard was in operation. Beside the Ferry Wharf itself a small building can be seen, probably the Hillsborough Boating Club building. Note how close the shoreline is to the railway shop building, now Founders Hall.

Aerial View, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada N.F.B. Photo
Version 2

EPSON MFP image

The Photo Gelantine Engraving Company of Ottawa [PECO] has a well-deserved reputation for poor quality of colouring and reproduction and the card above is one of the worst. Luckily, thanks to Phil Culhane’s excellent site at peipistcards.ca an uncoloured version, also published by PECO is available. With additional clarity enough information can be gleaned from this view of the waterfront to date it from about 1952. In this view Dundas Esplanade has not yet been gobbled up by the expanding Charlottetown Hospital. Paoli’s Wharf is no longer in use and his begun its long deterioration which continues to this day. Some of the structures have disappeared from Pownal wharf and the Charlottetown Yacht Club occupies the area although Pownal Wharf itself still extends to the channel giving good protection for a number of moored yachts. Further along the scene is much the same as in the pre-war view. However, there is a distinct absence of shipping at the several wharves. Queen’s Wharf appears to be abandoned and crumbling.

Aerial View of Charlottetown. The Capital City of Prince Edward Island. Population 18,000. Aerial Photo by Maritime Skyways, Ltd. Published by the Book Room Halifax # BR-652

This image from the south appears to date from the early 1960s. The air photo has poor resolution but sufficient detail can be gleaned to pick out a number of features. The addition to the PEI Hospital appears on the left. Along the waterfront from the west we can see that the Pownal Wharf has been cleared of the salt shed and warehouses and is now much shorter than in earlier views. Pickard’s coal wharf seems intact but the stub of Queen’s Wharf does not appear to be in use. Next to it the Buntain and Bell Wharf has at least one smaller vessel tied up. The Marine wharf is the busiest in the harbour with Coast Guard vessels on both sides. At the foot of Great George Street the former Steam Navigation Wharf is now being used as the Texaco terminal although only four tanks have built at this date. The northern end of the wharf still houses several of the Bruce Stewart & Co. buildings. The tanker mooring structures still standing off the Confederation Landing Park date from this period. The Prince Street Ferry Wharf has deteriorated as the service to Rocky Point was halted with the completion of the West River Causeway at New Dominion in 1958. Infill has pushed the shoreline south from the railway yards and structures. A freighter can be seen at the east side of the Railway Wharf.

Historic City of Charlottetown P.E.I. Premiere Post Card. No 21793R. Alex Wilson Publications. Distributed by Atlantic Imports, Kensington, P.E.I. Photo by George Hunter.
Charlottetown The Capital City of Prince Edward Island. Cavalier Postcard # 14891R . Alex Wilson Publications. Distributed by Island Wholesale Kinlock P.E.I. Photo by George Hunter

Although differing in production qualities and distributed by different entities the two cards above are both by the same photographer, George Hunter, and were taken on the same flight. Although the wharf detail is not clear in some cases both cards show identical vessels tied up at the Railway Wharf. With shots taken from the west the cards show details which do not often appear in postcards. The Armories on Kent Street are prominent in the top card which also shows West Kent School which was demolished in 1966 to make way for the government office complex. The card itself dates from after 1978 but the image is more than a decade earlier. The entire block bounded by Haviland Street, Water Street, Sidney Street and the harbour is occupied by the Charlottetown Hospital, the School of Nursing and the Sacred Heart Home. Dundas Esplanade which appears on earlier postcards has completely disappeared. H.M.C.S. Queen Charlotte is located on what had been the upper section of Connolly’s or Paoli’s Wharf while the wharf itself is in complete ruins. The large City Barn can be seen just north of the Yacht Club. The new Department of Transport Wharf is under construction, incorporating Pickard’s Coal Wharf, the ruin of Queen’s Wharf and the Buntain and Bell Wharf. To the east of the new construction the Marine and Fisheries Wharf is still in use and the former Steam Navigation Wharf now sports an additional two tanks for Texaco Oil. The ruins of the Ferry Wharf lie to the west of the Railway Wharf.

Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada .Premiere Post Card. No 23187R Alex Wilson Publications. Distributed by Atlantic Imports, Kensington, P.E.I. Photo by George Hunter.

The re-development of the Charlottetown waterfront in the 1970s and 1980s brought more changes to the area than the previous half-century. One of these changes was the development of Harbourside on the site of post-industrial buildings on the waterlots south of Water Street. This 1978 image centers on the Charlottetown Yacht Club where almost all vessels were still moored off and were reached by dinghies or the club tender. The club building itself had been enlarged with an extension and deck which house a bar for members and guests. The dinghy launch ramp and the jetty at the stub end of the Pownal Wharf provided landing spots. The Department of Transport Wharf has been completed and is in use and the apartments and commercial spaces north and east of the yacht club are being landscaped.

Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island Published by Allied Sales Charlottetown Card No. PEI21H. Photo by Ron Garnett.

This image was taken after the completion of the Harbourside buildings and shows the Yacht Club Property before the addition of the marina although some fingers have been added to the inner basin protected by a floating barrier which eventually sank and remains close to the end of Lord’s Wharf. The hotel and convention centre occupy the foot of Queen Street and the Marine and Fisheries wharf is still in place to the east. The Texaco tank farm is still in use and Confederation Landing Park has not yet been built.

Peake’s Wharf. Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island Published by Allied Sales Charlottetown Card No. PEI34H. Photo by Ron Garnett.

Although this photograph is from the same source it follows the previous one by several years. The removal of the Texaco tank farm paved the way for the development of the 6 acre Confederation Landing Park which was completed in 1995.This image dates before that project but does show the major 1990 development at Peake’s Quay following the removal of the Marine and Fisheries Wharf. At the Charlottetown Yacht Club the inner basin marina (the ‘hood) has been developed.

Notes:

  1. See H.T. Holman “Panorama for Sale: The Bird’s Eye Views of Prince Edward Island” The Island Magazine No. 24 (Fall/Winter 1988) pp. 14-18. Can be downloaded from this site: https://www.islandimagined.ca/articles
  2. A series of fine articles on the creation and publishing of the Meacham’s Atlas have recently appeared in Reg Porter’s blog found here

Postcards from the Sky: Aerial images of the Charlottetown Waterfront 1930- 2000

Before the invention of the airplane residents of Charlottetown would have had little idea of what their city looked like from the skies. In 1878 they got a hint of the City’s appearance with the publication of a panoramic view of the city1. The Semi-Weekly Patriot noted its publication ” We do not know how the artist got there but the sketch seems to have been taken from an elevated position over the the head of the Railway Wharf. You have a view of part of the harbor and all of the wharves.” More on this view will be the subject of an upcoming blog posting.

Real aerial images were taken of the city in the late 1920s by the Royal Canadian Air Force but these would not have been freely available to the general public. Instead they had to wait for images of the city to be published as postcards. Over the years from the late 1930s to the present a number of air photos of the city were made available. Unfortunately the quality of postcard images had deteriorated considerably from the cards of the golden age of postcards in the years before the beginning of the Great Depression. Nevertheless these cards are one of the better sources to document the changing nature of the Charlottetown waterfront over the last eighty years.

Click on any highlighted text to see pages dedicated to the history of the wharf or company.

Charlottetown. P.E. Island. Photo Gelantine Engraving Company, Ottawa [PECO] card #12

This appears to be the earliest air photo of the Charlottetown waterfront to appear on a postcard. It shows a city not much changed since the years immediately following the publication of Meacham’s Atlas in 1880.2 While the names attached to several of the wharves changed over the years their basic configuration did not.

Charlottetown Waterfront, P.E. Island. Photo Gelantine Engraving Company, Ottawa [PECO] card No. 21

This detailed view was obviously taken at the same time as the more distant card above and can be dated before 1938. It shows an industrial waterfront in the closing days of the the age of sail. The Charlottetown Yacht Club clubhouse at Lords Wharf has not yet made its appearance although a number of small boats can be seen moored to the sheltered east side of Pownal Wharf. Indeed small craft can be seen at almost all of the wharves. The lot at the head of Pownal Wharf appears to be cleared for erection of the Eastern Hay and Feed Warehouse which was opened in 1940 and the rail spur which was extended along Lower Water Street does not appear to have been built. Judging by the number of warehouses Pownal Wharf seems to be in active use although no large ships can be seen there. Pickard’s Coal Wharf to the east is busier with at least three schooners tied to the wharf. Next is Queen’s Wharf , one of the smallest in the city but it has a vessel tied to each face of the wharf. At the Buntain and Bell Wharf with its distinctive warehouse a large schooner is either arriving or departing. The Marine and Fisheries wharf is quiet with all of the vessels stationed there on patrol although several smaller craft can be seen hauled out on the marine railway between that wharf and Buntain and Bell. The MacDonald Rowe woodworking plant can be seen just to the west of the end of Great George Street. In contrast with the neat and tidy arrangements on the Marine and Fisheries Wharf the Steam Navigation Wharf is a jumble of warehouses and out buildings (more than a dozen), most of which were associated with Bruce Stewart and Company’s industrial operations. Although the regular steamer service provided by the Harland had come to an end this was one of the busier wharves in the city. Between it and the Ferry Wharf at Prince Street another coal yard was in operation. Beside the Ferry Wharf itself a small building can be seen, probably the Hillsborough Boating Club building. Note how close the shoreline is to the railway shop building, now Founders Hall. The eastern approaches to the city are dominated by the tank farms of Imperial Oil and Irving.

Aerial View, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada N.F.B. Photo

The Photo Gelantine Engraving Company of Ottawa [PECO] has a well-deserved reputation for poor quality of colouring and reproduction and the card above is one of the worst. However enough information can be gleaned from this view of the waterfront to date it from about 1952. In this view Dundas Esplanade has not yet been gobbled up by the expanding Charlottetown Hospital. Paoli’s Wharf is no longer in use and his begun its long deterioration which continues to this day. Some of the structures have disappeared from Pownal wharf and the Charlottetown Yacht Club occupies the area although Pownal Wharf itself still extends to the channel giving good protection for a number of moored yachts. Further along the scene is much the same as in the pre-war view. However, there is a distinct absence of shipping at the several wharves. Queen’s Wharf appears to be abandoned and crumbling.

Aerial View of Charlottetown. The Capital City of Prince Edward Island. Population 18,000. Aerial Photo by Maritime Skyways, Ltd. Published by the Book Room Halifax # BR-652

This image from the south appears to date from the early 1960s. The air photo has poor resolution but sufficient detail can be gleaned to pick out a number of features. The addition to the PEI Hospital appears on the left. Along the waterfront from the west we can see that the Pownal Wharf has been cleared of the salt shed and warehouses and is now much shorter than in earlier views. Pickard’s coal wharf seems intact but the stub of Queen’s Wharf does not appear to be in use. Next to it the Buntain and Bell Wharf has at least one smaller vessel tied up. The Marine wharf is the busiest in the harbour with Coast Guard vessels on both sides. At the foot of Great George Street the former Steam Navigation Wharf is now being used as the Texaco terminal although only four tanks have built at this date. The northern end of the wharf still houses several of the Bruce Stewart & Co. buildings. The tanker mooring structures still standing off the Confederation Landing Park date from this period. The Prince Street Ferry Wharf has deteriorated as the service to Rocky Point was halted with the completion of the West River Causeway at New Dominion in 1958. Infill has pushed the shoreline south from the railway yards and structures. A freighter can be seen at the east side of the Railway Wharf.

Historic City of Charlottetown P.E.I. Premiere Post Card. No 21793R. Alex Wilson Publications. Distributed by Atlantic Imports, Kensington, P.E.I. Photo by George Hunter.
Charlottetown The Capital City of Prince Edward Island. Cavalier Postcard # 14891R . Alex Wilson Publications. Distributed by Island Wholesale Kinlock P.E.I. Photo by George Hunter

Although differing in production qualities and distributed by different entities the two cards above are both by the same photographer, George Hunter, and were taken on the same flight. Although the wharf detail is not clear in some cases both cards show identical vessels tied up at the Railway Wharf. With shots taken from the west the cards show details which do not often appear in postcards. The Armories on Kent Street are prominent in the top card which also shows West Kent School which was demolished in 1966 to make way for the government office complex. The card itself dates from after 1978 but the image is more than a decade earlier. The entire block bounded by Haviland Street, Water Street, Sidney Street and the harbour is occupied by the Charlottetown Hospital, the School of Nursing and the Sacred Heart Home. Dundas Esplanade which appears on earlier postcards has completely disappeared. H.M.C.S. Queen Charlotte is located on what had been the upper section of Connolly’s or Paoli’s Wharf while the wharf itself is in complete ruins. The large City Barn can be seen just north of the Yacht Club. The new Department of Transport Wharf is under construction, incorporating Pickard’s Coal Wharf, the ruin of Queen’s Wharf and the Buntain and Bell Wharf. To the east of the new construction the Marine and Fisheries Wharf is still in use and the former Steam Navigation Wharf now sports an additional two tanks for Texaco Oil. The ruins of the Ferry Wharf lie to the west of the Railway Wharf and tank farms for both Imperial Oil and Irving dominate the eastern entrance to the city from the Hillsborough Bridge.

Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada .Premiere Post Card. No 23187R Alex Wilson Publications. Distributed by Atlantic Imports, Kensington, P.E.I. Photo by George Hunter.

The re-development of the Charlottetown waterfront in the 1970s and 1980s brought more changes to the area than the previous half-century. One of these changes was the development of Harbourside on the site of post-industrial buildings on the waterlots south of Water Street. This 1978 image centers on the Charlottetown Yacht Club where almost all vessels were still moored off and were reached by dinghies or the club tender. The club building itself had been enlarged with an extension and deck which house a bar for members and guests. The dinghy launch ramp and the jetty at the stub end of the Pownal Wharf provided landing spots. The Department of Transport Wharf has been completed and is in use and the apartments and commercial spaces north and east of the yacht club are being landscaped.

Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island Published by Allied Sales Charlottetown Card No. PEI21H. Photo by Ron Garnett.

This image was taken after the completion of the Harbourside buildings and shows the Yacht Club Property before the addition of the marina although some fingers have been added to the inner basin protected by a floating barrier which eventually sank and remains close to the end of Lord’s Wharf. The hotel and convention centre occupy the foot of Queen Street and the Marine and Fisheries wharf is still in place to the east. The Texaco tank farm is still in use and Confederation Landing Park has not yet been built.

Peake’s Wharf. Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island Published by Allied Sales Charlottetown Card No. PEI34H. Photo by Ron Garnett.

Although this photograph is from the same source it follows the previous one by several years. The removal of the Texaco tank farm paved the way for the development of the 6 acre Confederation Landing Park which was completed in 1995.This image dates before that project but does show the major 1990 development at Peake’s Quay following the removal of the Marine and Fisheries Wharf. At the Charlottetown Yacht Club the inner basin marina (the ‘hood) has been developed.

Notes:

  1. See H.T. Holman “Panorama for Sale: The Bird’s Eye Views of Prince Edward Island” The Island Magazine No. 24 (Fall/Winter 1988) pp. 14-18. Can be downloaded from this site: https://www.islandimagined.ca/articles
  2. A series of fine articles on the creation and publishing of the Meacham’s Atlas have recently appeared in Reg Porter’s blog found here

Bruce Stewart and the Imperials

Today the foot of Great George Street is anything but industrial.  With bars and “shoppes” infused with the same stench of pot-pourri that assaults the visitors nostrils from Key West to Nain it is a sanitized waterfront that has effectively removed any hint of the dirt and smells and noise of an area where things were actually made, rather than just “marketed.”

A hundred years ago it was one of the busiest sections of the waterfront – with hardly a tourist to be seen. There were sash and door factories, woodworking shops, foundries, and machine shops. At the heart of the city’s industrial complex was Bruce Stewart & Co. and in 1915 Bruce Stewart was riding wave of success with their star product – the imperial gasoline engine.

Bruce Stewart Gasoline Engine. Guardian 25 August 1909 p. 4

Bruce Stewart Gasoline Engine. Guardian 25 August 1909 p. 4

Bruce Stewart and Company was founded in 1893 when Bruce Stewart, who had trained as a machinist and worked at the MacKinnon & MacLean foundry, partnered with Andrew McNair who had come to the Island as engineer on the Steam Navigation Company’s Northumberland. The operation they created was a foundry and machine shop and they soon moved into the construction of steam engines and heavy equipment. Their engines were shipped all across Canada. Among the early projects was the construction of the engine for the S.S. Brant  and they continued to be involved with ship construction and repairs into the 1950s. Many of the Bruce Stewart stationary engines were used in the small canning and cheese factories on the Island as well as on Island farms.  After 1900 there was increased interest from these customers in alternatives to steam power.

BS engine 1909001

Gasoline engines were a new technology at the turn of the twentieth century. They were simple machines and a host of engine builders soon sprang up all over the continent. Bruce Stewart & Co. became agents for Fairbanks engines and they saw competition from local manufacturers in St. John, Lunenburg, Bridgewater and Amherst who advertised in Island papers. However the Charlottetown firm decided that engines were a reasonable extension of their foundry and machine shop business and in August 1908 they invited the Charlottetown press to view the first gasoline engine built in the province – an eight horsepower machine.The following spring they announced that they had embarked on the manufacture of marine engines. Developed using the design of an American engineer the three models proposed were a 4 horsepower single cylinder, 8 horsepower double cylinder and 12 horsepower triple cylinder. By August of that year the “Imperial Motors” were on the market. The first of these machines to be advertised, “the acme of perfection,”  was a 2 1/2 to 3 hp marine model.  At the P.E.I. exhibition in September a display featured engines with 4, 8, 12, 20 and 24 horsepower. The largest of these would have been stationary engines for use on farms, cheese factories, mills and other industrial uses. In 1917 the firm was manufacturing seven models ranging from 4 to 30 horsepower, the largest models being suitable for “schooners, tow boats and heavy working boats.”

Harbour seem from the foot of Great George Street. The launches are tied up in front of Bruce Stewart & Co. and may be several of the

Harbour seen from the foot of Great George Street. The launches are tied up in front of Bruce Stewart & Co. and may be several of the “Imperial” launches owned by Stewart.

Bruce Stewart was able to capitalize on (or perhaps created) the increased interest in motor boats.  He had a number of launches called the Imperial and seems to have used them as test beds for the marine engines.  Prior to the Great War there was considerable interest in motor boat racing and Stewart campaigned the Imperial whenever possible. In 1910 the Imperial II took the McKelvie Cup which had been offered for excellence in motorboat racing. That fact was used by the company in advertising for several years. Imperial engines were frequently noted in stories concerning the launch of many of the pleasure motor boats sailing in Charlottetown harbour.

In spite of a crowded market the Imperial motors were a success. By 1912 the engines were being distributed across the Maritimes, Quebec, Newfoundland and even to Prince Rupert B.C.  A 1917 advertisement included testimonials from buyers in the Maritimes as well as one from Auckland New Zealand. That year the Gaspe fishing supply company of Robin, Jones and Whitman placed an order for 110 of the engines.

Guardian 30 April 1936 p. 9

Guardian 30 April 1936 p. 9

Bruce Stewart and Company knew the importance of advertising and produced a steady stream of illustrations and catalogues of their engines, published testimonials, used displays at exhibitions and, as noted above, used the Imperial motor launches as advertising vehicles. Over the years the Company used several slogans for the Imperial. In 1909 it was “The Acme of Perfection.” In the 1940s it was referred to as “The Bulldog of the Sea.” The most remarkable ad was the one in 1936 which seemed to emulate the interest in the writing of William Henry Drummond with its use of dialect, an attempt which today might be seen as just a tad politically incorrect.

Lower Great George Street ca. 1910. Bruce Stewart Plant to the right,. C.G. Hennessey Collection

Lower Great George Street ca. 1900. Bruce Stewart Plant to the right,. C.G. Hennessey Collection

In 1931 the Company announced the launch of a new “make and brake engine.” but in reality it was a change only to the ignition system and in other respects the engine was similar to the original 1909 design. Bruce Stewart died in 1930 but by then the company was incorporated and continued under a management team. Like other firms Bruce Stewart and Company saw a reduction of business during the depression but production of the Imperials never ceased. A gasoline engine had, by this time, become an essential requirement for the fishing industry but it still represented a significant investment. In 1937 a 5 hp Imperial purchased directly from the factory cost$128.00, a significant sum at mid-depression.  The outbreak of war in 1939 saw a huge increase in the Bruce Stewart workforce with the firm engaged in war production and ship repair.  Remarkably, in spite of a general downturn of work for the company after the war, the interest in the simple engines continued apparently unabated.  The firm expected to produce over five hundred Imperial Gasoline engines in 1946.  Demand continued to be heavy and in 1952 orders received suggested that the engine division would be working to capacity for the following year.

BS map001

Plan of the Bruce Stewart factory site 1917. Detail from Goad Insurance Atlas.

The company suffered a major fire in 1946 which destroyed many of the buildings housing the factory. Luckily the brick building housing the machine shop was spared and the company was soon back in operation. The majority of the shares in Bruce Stewart and Company had been purchased by Ferguson Industries of Pictou in 1951 with little change in the products manufactured. However by the time that the company was re-organized as Charlottetown Marine Industries in 1957 production of imperial Engines was a thing of the past.  The increased size of fishing boats was no doubt a factor but probably what made the Imperial line obsolescent was the increased availability of cheap used automobile engines. The Imperial design was more than forty years old and although simple it had failed to keep up with developments in the field.

It is unusual for a technology to continue to be produced relatively unchanged for more than forty years, especially in an area such as engines where so many advances were being made. The Imperial marine engine had a reputation for dependability but it was quickly swept away by the new engines. Today only a few of the thousands of Imperial engines produced have survived, cherished by collectors who in some cases have painstakingly restored them to working condition. The wharf-side factory site, which contributed so much to the economy of the city is now a parking lot and a park, neither of which contain any reference to the business conducted there for almost eighty years.